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Tuesday, January 24, 2012

LTCC vs. SCCT


How would you describe the differences between Krumboltz’s LTCC theory and Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s SCCT?

The LTCC and SCCT are similar theories of career development. However, one could say that the chief difference between the two is the attitude taken by each theory. The LTCC takes as its primary function to shape the person to deal with new problems and help them “cope” with their environment (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey, 2009, p. 78). In contrast the SCCT examines the cognitive mediators as if they were working with the environment. The idea of “self-efficacy” or the judgment of one’s own ability to execute actions and perform tasks (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey, 2009, p. 91).
                                 
The LTCC places a  good amount of pressure on the counselor as well as the counseled. We may understand this by examining the four basic fundaments laid out for this theory. Firstly, the job seeker, or any person needing or having employment, needs three things. These three things are to expand abilities and lexicon of experience, ready themselves to changes never thinking that their job offers true stability, and finally be empowered to act on plans to better their situation. The fourth, and lastly noted, need is for the counselor to address the whole of the client’s problems and not focus on one aspect (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey, 2009, p. 79).

Giving this further scrutiny it can be stated that “to expand abilities and lexicon of experience” would mean to have a profitable life outside of work that may lead to jobs in the future. For example my friend Ken took an interest in rock collecting. This became rock carving and shaping and ended its evolution as jewelry construction. Jewelry provides Ken a hobby for his retirement. By the time Ken retired he had acquired all he needed for this hobby and was in good position to become a jewelry maker at least in his own definition of the word.  Lately, Ken was in no need of employment as his pension would pay his bills but was in need of an affordable use of his time.

Then let us shift this to the point of view of the SCCT which evaluates situations based on values not efficacy. The SCCT also has four major factors being: personal satisfaction with the job preformed, observation of action by others, environmental pressure, and finally impact of actions on the self (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey, 2009, p. 91).  If these four factors drive positive outcome of if enough of the outcomes are positive the behavior will be reinforced and evolved. If the overall outcome is negative the behavior will be discouraged.

In Ken’s case, how does he feel about the jewelry he makes? We may see it as the progeny of a large aardvark and a hippopotamus, but if Ken finds satisfaction he will make more.  Secondly, he first observed others making jewelry and emulated this jewelry. The environment provided an opportunity to shape rocks and a framework for the shape those rocks should take. Third, some of Ken’s rocks were then used to make fishing poles which were entered in and won a contest. Ken then received pressure to make more jewelry. Factor four can be translated to what was the impact on Ken? He received encouragement and gratification.  Ken will keep playing with his rocks until that stops.

Looking at the two methods the largest contrast is that the LTCC works well for those who are unsure of themselves and have more problems in life. It would also be better applicable to younger clients as it involves active planned adaptation. The SCCT is more involved with bringing out or evaluating what is present already. LTCC’s expansion factor is not limited to  the existing environment and can be as relevant to a ten year old as to an eighteen year old.  SCCT may be hard to apply to those with fewer life expanses. An active eighteen year old finishing high school may have many experiences from which to draw making the SCCT work well but an eighteen year old who was home schooled will need the factors present in the LTCC.

Niles, S. G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. G. (2009). Introduction to Career Development Interventions. In Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century (3rd ed., Ch 2).